Sweden

  Europe, Sweden

Sweden, or officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a country located on the Scandinavian peninsula in Northern Europe. The country’s border neighbors are Norway to the west and north, and Finland to the east. Sweden is also connected to Denmark with the Öresund Bridge in the south.

With an area of ​​approximately 450,295 km², Sweden is the third largest country among the European Union countries. The total population of the country is 10.4 million, with 23 people living in terms of density. However, population density increases rapidly as you go south. 85% of the people in the country live in cities. The capital of Sweden is Stockholm, which is also the largest city in the country. 2 million people live in the capital, of which 1.3 million are in the centre. Other major cities of the country are Gothenburg and Malmö, respectively.

Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Being a developed country in terms of economy, Sweden ranks first according to The Economist’s Democracy Index and ranks 7th according to the United Nations’ 2019 Human Development Index. The country has also been a member of the European Union since 1 January 1995.

Sweden has been an independent and single country since the Middle Ages. The modern central government first began in the 16th century with Gustav Vasa becoming king. In the 17th century, the country was expanded to establish the Swedish Empire. However, most of the conquered territories outside Scandinavia were lost in the 18th and 19th centuries. The eastern half of Sweden, which is now Finland, was captured by Russia in 1809. The last war in which Sweden was involved was in 1814. This war began when Sweden forced its neighbor Norway to unite under a single country. The union that was established lasted until 1905. Since 1814, Sweden has pursued a policy of peace and a non-war foreign policy, remaining neutral in most wars.

Etymology

The Swedish name is derived from the Old English word Sweoðeod. This word is also derived from the words Sweon/Sweonas. (Old Norse Sviar, Latin Suiones) The Swedish name for Sweden, Sverige, originally meant “Land of the Swedes”, except for the Goths of Götaland.

Various spellings of the name Sweden are used in many other countries as the equivalent of the Swedish name. In Danish and Norwegian the name Sverige is used, as in Sweden. In Finno-Ugric languages, a different name is used from these patterns: The Finnish equivalent of Sweden is Ruotsi, and the Estonian equivalent is Rootsi. This difference is thought to be due to the Russians living in the Uppland – Roslagen regions.

This is not widely supported, although there are those who argue that the Swede (Swede) and thus the Swedish name (Sweden) derives from the root Swihoniz, meaning someone possessed by Proto-Germanic.

Mythology

prof. Sven Lagerbring, in the book he wrote about 250 years ago, says that the ancestors of the Swedes are Turks, based on the commonality and mythological similarities between Turkish and Swedish. In Swedish fairy tales, it is told that the god Odin came from “Turkland”. Oden was the leader of a large crowd who were introduced in the first part of the tale of Hegvahar as Tirkiar (Turks) and Asiemaen (Asians, Asian men). Are Frode tells the same story. In the kinship tree that Are Frode explains here, he says that Oden’s son’s name is Yngve Tirkia Kongr. For a long time, the Turks had vast territories in the north of the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains. “There is no need to document where the wands (Asian men – Asians) sit. Ptelemaeus puts them in these areas, east of the River Don (Old Swedish: Tanais). Sturleson also confirms this.

History

Prehistoric

Sweden’s prehistory dates back to the Allerød oscillation period, which dates back to about 12000 BC. Reindeer hunting camps belonging to the Bromme Culture, which were found at the end of the Old Stone Age, were found on an ice edge in the southernmost part of the country. The people of this period consisted of a group of people who lived as hunter-gatherers and hunted with stone technology.

Agriculture, livestock, burial rites, and inlaid pottery were settled by the Funnel Beaker culture, which passed through Europe around 4,000 BC.

The south of Sweden became part of the Scandinavian Bronze Age Culture area in terms of livestock and agriculture, mainly because Sweden was in the immediate vicinity of Denmark, the center of this culture. The period began with the start of bronze imports from Europe around 1700 BC. Since copper mining did not yet exist at this time and there were no tin mines in Scandinavia, all metals had to be imported.

The Scandinavian Bronze Age was purely pre-urban, with people living on farms in small villages with one-story wooden long-houses.

Except for the Roman occupation, the Iron Age of Sweden draws attention with its stone structures and monasteries, the number of which is about 1100. Much of this period is protohistoric (en:proto-history), so there are written sources but of low credibility. The remnants of the written materials were written either in remote areas long after the time in question, or in their place and time, but extremely short.

The climate deteriorated so much that farmers had to keep cattle indoors for the winter, resulting in annual manure accumulation so that manure could be used for the first time systematically for soil improvement. The Roman attempt to extend the imperial frontiers from the Rhine to the Elbe was stopped in 9 by the defeat of the Roman legions under Publius Quinctilius Varus, who had been ambushed by the Germans at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Around this time, a significant change took place in Scandinavia’s cultural landscape as a result of increased contact with the Romans.

From the 2nd century, most of southern Sweden’s agricultural land was parceled out by low stone walls. They divided the land into permanent fields and meadows; On one side of the wall was fodder for the winter, and on the other side was the wooded outer land where cattle grazed. This principle of landscape layout persisted into the 19th century. The Roman Period also saw the first large-scale expansion of agricultural settlement, extending from the northern two-thirds of the country to the Baltic coast.

Sweden enters the proto-historic period with Tacitus’ book Germania in 98. In Germania 44, 45 the Swedes are mentioned as a mighty tribe called the Suiones, which owned ships (viking sailboats) with bows at both ends. Although it is not known which kings (kuningaz) ruled this Suiones tribe, legendary and semi-mythical kings dating back to the last century BC are mentioned in Norse mythology. However, all of the runic writings that have survived from the Roman Period are short fragments on the items. Judging by most of the male names, it is thought that the people of southern Scandinavia spoke Proto-Nors (the presumed ancestor of Swedish and other North Germanic languages) during this period.

In the 6th century, Jordanes mentions two tribes, the Suehans and the Suetidi, who lived in Scandza.These two names are thought to belong to the same tribe. They have horses (alia vero gens ibi moratur Suehans, quae velud Thyringi equis utuntur eximiis). Snorri Sturluson wrote that his contemporary, Swedish king Adils (Eadgils) had the best horses of his time. The Suehans were suppliers of black fox skins for the Roman market. The name Suetidi given by Jordenes is thought to be the then-Latin form of Svitjod. Gene Jordenes writes that the Danes, who are of the same ancestry as the Suetidis, are the tallest men, and then mentions other Scandinavian tribes of the same height.

Vikings and the Middle Ages

The Viking era in Sweden took place between the 8th and 11th centuries. It is thought that during this period the Swedes began to expand into eastern Sweden and merged with the Goths in the south. Likewise, it is known that Swedish Vikings and Götlanders lived in the southern and eastern parts close to present-day Finland and regularly migrated to the Baltic countries, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and even Baghdad. Vikings invaded the city several times by going to Istanbul, which was known as Constantinople at that time, via the Dnieper river via these migration routes. When these warrior abilities of the Vikings were recognized by the Byzantine administration, the emperor Theophilos offered them to be his personal bodyguard. This community is called Varangyan today. It is known that the Swedish Vikings, known as Rus at the time, are also the ancestors of the Kievan Rus. The Arab traveler Ibn Fadlan described these Vikings as follows:

I saw the Russians returning from their commercial voyages and camped near the Idil River. I don’t remember ever seeing a people with such excellent physical characteristics before. Tall like a date palm tree, blond and ruddy. Their clothes are neither tunic nor caftan; Especially the clothes worn by men cover one side of their body and only allow one hand to be exposed. Every man has an ax, a sword and a knife. Moreover, they always carry all these with them. Their swords are broad and indented. In these features, they resemble the Franks.

The adventures of these Swedish Vikings are described on many Swedish obelisks, and are particularly depicted on the Greek Obelisks and Varangian Obelisks. In addition, there are important voyages of the Vikings to the west. Many of these expeditions were engraved on the British Obelisks. The last known Viking migrations took place towards Serkland, which is known as the southern part of the Caspian Sea and generally means the Abbasid State. The names of the survivors of this exodus are engraved on the Ingvar Obelisks. It is not known for certain what happened to the other Vikings who took part in this migration, but it is thought that they died of disease.

Although it is not known when and how the kingdom was first established in Sweden, the list of Swedish kings who ruled the countries of Svealand (Sweden) and Götaland (Götland) is included in the sources. This list begins with the first king, Erik the Victor. Although the exact history of the Swedes and Goths, who were different tribes before this period, is not known, it is thought that they constantly fought and the epics describing these wars date back to the 6th century.

Early in Scandinavian Viking history, the cities of Ystad in Skåne and Paviken in Gotland, in what is now Sweden, were trading centers. Especially the ruins found in Ystad showed that markets existed in the city in the 7th and 8th centuries. It is known that in Paviken, between the 9th and 11th centuries, there was a trade center that had an important place among the Baltic cities of the period. Looking at the ruins found in the region, it can be said that the Vikings established shipyards and handicraft markets in this region. It is known that a large amount of silver was mined in the same region at that time. For this reason, the Goths became one of the peoples who accumulated and processed silver the most.

st. Ansgar brought Christianity to Scandinavia in 829. However, it took until the 12th century for this new religion to replace the local religion, paganism. In the 11th century, Christianity became the most widespread religion in the region, and from 1050 Sweden began to be called a Christian country. Between the 12th and 15th centuries, Sweden dealt with civil unrest and attacks by other Scandinavian countries. However, the Swedish kings expanded their borders, included present-day Finland within the borders of Sweden, and fought the Russians.

In the 14th century, the Black Death appeared in Sweden with the bubonic plague epidemics. Despite this, Sweden continued its development faster than other European countries during this period. While many cities of Sweden gained higher rights, German merchants from the Hanseatic League began to be taken as an example by the public. These traders lived mostly around Visby at that time. In 1319 Sweden and Norway were united under king Magnus Eriksson. Also in 1397, Queen Margaret I influenced the unification of Sweden, Norway and Denmark into a single power called the Kalmar Union. But the Danish rulers who came after Margaret were unable to control the Swedish nobility. The real power remained in the hands of the regents, mostly descended from the Sture family. King of Denmark II. Kristian ordered his army to carry out a massacre against the Swedish nobility in Stockholm in 1520. This event is known as the Stockholm Massacre. After this incident, the Swedish nobility was shaken and the people installed Gustav Vasa as king. This event, which took place on June 6, 1523, is accepted as the founding day of modern Sweden and is celebrated as an official holiday in Sweden every year. Shortly after its establishment, the Catholic sect dissolved in Sweden and the transition process to the Protestant sect began.

Swedish Empire

In the 17th century, Sweden became a superpower in Europe. An extremely poor, low-population and little-known northern country before the establishment of the Swedish Empire, the country had no special power, reputation or resources. Sweden got rid of this bad situation during the reign of King Gustav II Adolf. It gradually began to be recognized, especially with the lands it took from Russia, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Thirty Years’ War. Thanks to these military successes, the Swedish Empire became the main center of Protestantism until its collapse in 1721.

II. At the end of Gustaf Adolf’s war with the Holy Roman Empire, Sweden, which inflicted severe wounds on this state, killed a large population of the Holy Roman Empire in the Thirty Years’ War. Half of the territories held by the Holy Roman Empire, which lost its importance after this period, passed to Sweden. Gustav Adolf, who initially aimed to proclaim himself a new Holy Roman king, was defeated at the Battle of Lützen in 1632, but this aim was not fulfilled. When Sweden was defeated after the Battle of Nördlingen, the trust of the Germanic tribes supporting Sweden in Sweden was shaken. These Germanic regions declared their independence by fighting Sweden one by one. As a result of this event, only a few parts of Sweden in the southern Baltic region remained: Swedish Pomerania, Bremen-Verden and Wismar.

By the middle of the 17th century, Sweden was the third largest country in Europe in terms of area, after Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its widest borders with the Treaty of Roskilde signed in 1658 during the reign of Karl X. Gustav. The basis of this rise of Sweden lies in the radical changes made by Gustav I in the field of economy in the 16th century. The spread of the Protestant sect also increased the development. In the 17th century, Sweden was the scene of constant wars. The most important of these are those made with states such as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which was established in the place where the present Baltic states are located. The Kircholm War, which was the most prominent among these wars and ended in defeat, is one of the important events in the history of the kingdom of Sweden.

This period was also a period when King Karl X. Gustav made constant raids on Poland and Lithuania. After half a century of continuous wars, Sweden’s economy began to deteriorate. Fixing this economy is also XI. It was Karl’s job. First of all, Karl, who reorganized the economic relations, organized the army in this direction. At the end of the improved internal affairs, the king XI. Karl, his son, who succeeded him XII. He bequeathed to Karl one of the largest armies in the world. Although the number of armies of Russia, which was Sweden’s biggest rival at that time, was higher, it was behind in terms of war equipment.

In the Battle of Narva in 1700, one of the first conflicts of the Great Northern War, Russia was badly damaged and there was a clear opportunity for Sweden to conquer Russia. However, Karl gave up dealing with the Russian army and chose to fight the Polish and Lithuanian Union. In these wars, he defeated the Polish king August II and his Saxon collaborators at the Battle of Kliszow in 1702. This period gave Russia the opportunity to regroup and strengthen. After the success of occupying the Polish lands, Karl wanted to attempt an attack on Russia as well. The Battle of Poltava, which took place in 1709, however, resulted in a decisive victory for Russia. At the end of all these conflicts with the Slavs, the decreasing number of the Swedish army due to the war techniques of the Russian Tsar Peter I and the cold Russian climate is an important factor in this defeat. Moreover, the high number of Russian soldiers in Poltava is among the reasons for the defeat. This defeat at Poltava marked the beginning of the end for the Kingdom of Sweden.

XII. In 1716, Karl began making plans to capture Norway. However, he was shot dead at Fredriksten Castle in 1718. Although the Swedes were not militarily defeated in this event, the structure and organization of all Norwegian plans was severely disrupted. As a result of this, the Treaty of Nystad signed in 1721 caused Sweden’s title as an empire to disappear and almost all Swedish lands on the Baltic coast were lost. Although the Great Northern War was officially over after this treaty, Russia became an empire in a short time at the end of this decline and deterioration and took place among the leading countries of Europe in the next centuries.

In the eighteenth century, Sweden had no resources to restore its lands outside Scandinavia. As a result, in 1809 eastern Sweden was completely captured by Russia. Over time, this region came to be known as the autonomous Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire.

Due to Sweden’s desire to dominate the Baltic region again, the country decided to form an alliance with France, which was historically a friend of the country, during the Napoleonic Wars. Sweden, with its role in the Battle of Leipzig, forced Denmark-Norway into partnering with France. Thus, France could be considered a partner with Denmark and Norway as well as Sweden. With the Kiel Treaty signed as a result of all these efforts, Norway would be connected to Sweden, and the Pomeranian region would also be handed over to Sweden. However, after this treaty, Norway constantly struggled for independence. However, these requests XIII. suppressed by Karl. Again, an operation was organized by the same king against Norway on 27 July 1814. These reciprocities lasted until the Moss Convention. In this convention, Sweden and Norway became a union under a single country, dominated by Sweden. As this union lasted until 1905, the operation in 1814 was the last offensive war that Sweden had ever been in.

Modern history

During the 18th and 19th centuries, Sweden saw a huge increase in population maintenance. In 1833, the writer Esaias Tegnér summarized it as “peace, vaccine (flower) and potato”. Between 1750 and 1850 Sweden’s population doubled. According to some experts, Swedish immigration to the United States is claimed to be the most important factor in protecting the Swedish people from famine and rebellion. Especially in the 1880s, more than one percent of the population gradually emigrated to the United States. By contrast, Sweden still remained poor. Sweden was a country whose industry was largely based on agriculture, in contrast to the European countries that started to develop due to industry, especially Denmark. Many people saw America as a better place during this period, and more than a million Swedes immigrated to America. At the beginning of the 20th century, more Swedes lived in Chicago, United States, than Gothenburg, Sweden’s second largest city. In addition, many Swedish citizens settled in the Midwestern United States, primarily in Minnesota and Delaware. It is known that there are Swedes who settled in Canada and Argentina outside the USA.

Despite the slow rate of industrialization in the 19th century, many important agricultural changes took place. Agriculture has become the most important economic activity in the country, especially due to innovative breakthroughs in this field and rapid population growth. At the beginning of the innovative breakthroughs in the agricultural field are the giving of the land to the farmers, increasing the value of agricultural areas and introducing new products such as potatoes to the public. In addition, he began to peasantize the people of Sweden in a way that was not seen in any other part of Europe. As a result, agriculture became an icon in Sweden’s political progress and led to political formations such as the Agrarian Party (now the Center Party). Between 1870 and 1914, Sweden started more important work in the field of industrialization and made progress in areas other than agriculture.

Starting from the second half of the 19th century, the grassroots class made various attempts. These movements, which were the scene of various commercial organizations, trade unions and independent religious organizations, have made an important contribution to Sweden’s current democratization process. The Swedish Social Democratic Party was founded in 1889. As a result of all these efforts, Sweden put an end to its out-migration and started to become a democratic country that received immigrants before the First World War. The late industrial revolution in Sweden showed itself intensely in the 20th century. People migrated from villages to cities to work in various factories. In addition, a large part of the population joined the socialist unions. The request for transition to socialism in 1917 was rejected and the parliamentary system was introduced to the people. As a result, the country democratized.

World Wars

Sweden, both World War I and II. He declared that he was officially neutral in World War II. However, especially in II. Its neutrality in World War II has been discussed many times. Taking Germany as an example for a long time, Sweden preferred to remain indifferent to the blocks that emerged in the world during this period. The Swedish government, the country’s II. He obtained some privileges by declaring that he would not fight Germany during World War II. Sweden, in particular, was known for shipping steel and machinery to Germany during the war. However, Sweden also supported Norway’s defense during the war. In this context, he made an attempt to liberate Danish Jews from concentration camps in 1943. Towards the end of the war, Sweden made some peaceful attempts to save Scandinavian and Baltic Jews in many concentration camps. However, after the war, many Swedish and World authorities criticized the country’s stance in the war, saying that the country could provide more humanitarian aid during these years and could further prevent the Nazis’ destruction in the war.

The Cold War

Although Sweden was known for its neutrality throughout the 20th century, it is widely known that the country and the major authorities in the country had more dominant relations with the United States during the Cold War period. In the early 1960s the two countries agreed to deploy several American nuclear submarines on the west coast of Sweden. That same year, Sweden signed a defense pact with the United States. This agreement remained a state secret and was disclosed to the Swedish people in 1994.

After the war, Sweden had a pristine industrial base, social stability and a number of natural resources. In this way, the country assumed an important role in meeting the needs of the re-established Europe. As part of the Marshall Plan, Sweden also joined the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). For most of the post-war period, the country was ruled by the Swedish Social Democratic Party (Swedish: Socialdemokraterna). By following a corporatist policy, these party members started to favor big capitalist companies and big unions. In particular, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation is among them. Again, the number of bureaucrats rose above the normal level in the sixties and reached extreme proportions in the eighties. During this period, Sweden was open to trade and supported the manufacturing sector under international competition. The growth that took place accordingly went well until the seventies.

As a result of the oil embargoes of 1973-74 and 1978-79, Sweden experienced setbacks like other states in the world. In the eighties a significant part of Swedish industry was restructured. While shipbuilding was stopped, the woodworking industry was fused with the modernized paper industry. In addition, steel industries were increased and privatized. Finally, mechanical labor was robotized.

Between 1970 and 1990, taxes increased and price hikes occurred. On the contrary, Sweden developed more slowly than other Western European countries. The income tax limit for employees is based on 80%. In the end, the state spent more than half of the country’s gross domestic product. Because of all these, Sweden lost its place in the top five in terms of gross national product per capita. Since the end of the seventies, economic policy has been continuously supervised by the inspectors of the Ministry of Economy.

Nowadays

Inadequate control and in addition to this, recession in international markets and the transition from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies caused the real estate bubble to burst; As a result of all this, a financial crisis occurred in the early 1990s. Sweden’s GDP decreased by about 5%. In 1992 there were a series of changes in currency value, the central bank in an unsuccessful effort to maintain the currency’s value against the exchange rate, briefly raising interest rates to 500%. Total employment decreased by about 10% during the crisis. In the face of the declining welfare state and the privatization of public services and goods, the government’s response has been to cut spending and introduce a host of reforms to improve Sweden’s competitiveness. Most of the political institutions supported EU membership, and the Swedish referendum on 13 November 1994 was 52% to 48 in favor of joining the EU. Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995.

During the Cold War, Western European countries other than Ireland, which were not allies, thought that membership in the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the EU, which had strong relations with NATO countries, was unwise. Following the end of the Cold War, Sweden, Austria and Finland joined the community, but Sweden still did not adopt the euro. Although Sweden is part of some military exercises with NATO and some other countries, in addition to its wide-ranging cooperation with other European countries in the field of defense technologies and defense industry, it remained not a military ally. Among others, weapons exported by Swedish companies are used by the American military in Iraq. Sweden also has a long history of participation in international military operations, the most recent being peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the EU in Afghanistan and United Nations-sponsored Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cyprus, where Swedish troops under NATO command are deployed.

Geography and Climate

Sweden is located in Northern Europe, on the western shores of the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia. Therefore, Sweden has quite long coasts. With these features, Sweden forms the eastern side of the Scandinavian peninsula. To the west of the country is the Scandinavian mountain range (Skanderna), which separates the country from Norway.

The country is bordered by Norway in the west, Finland in the northeast, the Skagerrak, Kattegat and Öresund straits in the southwest, and the Baltic Sea in the east. The country also has maritime borders with Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. In addition, the Öresund Bridge, located between Denmark and Sweden, connects the countries. With a land area of ​​449,964 km², Sweden is the fifty-fifth largest country in the world, fifth in Europe and the largest in Northern Europe. The country is also slightly larger than the US state of California, approximately the same area as Uzbekistan. Sweden has a population of 9.5 million as of 2008.

The lowest altitude in Sweden is at -2.41 m in the bay at Lake Hammarsjön near the city of Kristianstad. Likewise, the highest point of the country is Kebnekaise with 2,111 meters.

Sweden has twenty-five regions (landskap). These; As Bohuslän, Blekinge, Dalarna, Dalsland, Gotland, Gästrikland, Halland, Hälsingland, Härjedalen, Jämtland, Lapland, Medelpad, Norrbotten, Närke, Skåne, Småland, Södermanland, Uppland, Värlandgårland, Västerlandgårland, Västerlandnn . While these regions do not constitute any administrative situation, they are just names that the people use to describe themselves. These regions form three main parts (land). These are Norrland in the north, Svealand in the middle and Götaland in the south. While Norrland has a fairly sparse population, it covers sixty percent of the country’s surface area.

Fifteen percent of Sweden’s territory lies within the Arctic Circle. Again, southern Sweden is agriculturally advanced, while the northern regions are suitable for forestry thanks to its dense forests. The highest population density in the country is in the Öresund region in the southwest and around Lake Mälaren, near the capital city Stockholm. Gotland and Öland are Sweden’s two largest islands, both located off the southeast coast. Likewise, lakes Vänern and Vättern are Sweden’s two largest lakes. Lake Vänern is also known for being the largest lake in Northern Europe and the third largest in Europe after Lakes Ladoga and Onega.

Climate

Although Sweden is at the same latitude as Siberia, it has a temperate climate. All four seasons and mild weather events can be seen clearly throughout the year in the country. The country is divided into three different climatic zones. Oceanic climate is observed in the southernmost region, humid continental climate is observed in the central region and subarctic climate is observed in the northern region. Sweden is warmer and hotter than many places at the same or even lower latitude. This is because of the Gulf Stream ocean currents. For example; central and southern Sweden is warmer than most parts of Russia and Canada. Being at high latitudes makes the day lengths of the country quite diverse. In the region of the country located within the Arctic Circle, the sun does not set during the summer, and the sun does not rise at all in the winter. In the capital city of Stockholm, which is also in the southeast, in June, eighteen hours of daylight are observed. However, in this city, there is only six hours of daylight in December. Much of the country receives between 1,600 and 2,000 hours of daylight per year.

Temperatures in the country vary considerably from north to south. The southern and central regions have warm summers and cold winters. In these regions, the summer air temperature rises to an average of 20 to 25 °C and drops to 12 to 15 °C. Likewise, in these regions, temperatures in winter decrease to an average of -4 to 2 °C. In the northern regions of the country, which experience cooler summers and long, harsh winters, the weather is generally below freezing from September to May. During the year, summer temperatures, including the north, rise above 25 °C, due to rare heat waves throughout Sweden. The highest temperature seen in the country was measured in Målilla in 1947 and was 38 °C. Likewise, the lowest temperature ever measured was -52.6 °C, measured in 1966 in Vuoggatjålme.

On average, most of Sweden receives between 500 and 800 mm of precipitation annually. This leaves the country below the global average. However, some parts of the south of the country receive between 1000 and 1200 mm of precipitation annually. Apart from this, precipitation in the mountainous areas in the north of the country increases up to 2000 mm annually. Snowfall days occur between December and March in Southern Sweden, between November and April in Central Sweden, and between October and May in Northern Sweden. However, the number of days with snowfall is low in the southern and central parts of the country.

Management and politics

Sweden is a country ruled by a parliamentary monarchy. King XVI. Although Karl Gustaf is the head of the country, he does not have much authority officially. The Economist Intelligence Unit, a research organization, stated that it is difficult to classify the country as democratic due to its monarchical rule, yet defined the country as the most democratic of 167 countries. The country’s legislative seat, the Riksdag (Swedish Assembly), has 349 members and also has the power to elect the prime minister. Parliamentary elections are held every four years on the third Sunday of September.

Provinces and municipalities

Sweden is a unitary state, divided into twenty-one (län). Each province has its own administrative boundaries (länsstyrelse) determined by the central government. Each province also has a provincial council (landsting) and its members are determined by direct elections.

There are more than one municipality (kommuner) in each province. As of 2004, the number of these municipalities is 290. Municipal government in Sweden is run in a manner similar to the city commission government or cabinet-style assembly. The legislative community (kommunfullmäktige) in municipalities has between 31 and 101 members, and an exact number is not available. These members are distributed over the weight of the parties that are organized throughout the country every four years and voted within a municipality.

In Sweden, there are districts which are sub-units of municipalities. As of 2000, there are a total of 2,512 neighborhoods (församlingar) in the country. Although these units were formerly segregated by the Swedish Church, they still have significance in census and elections today.

Apart from these administrative regions, there are twenty-five regions and three divisions in the country. The Swedish government is also discussing the unification of twenty-one provinces in the country under nine major provinces. To achieve this, there are various committees and research committees in the country. According to the statistical results, this project is planned to be completed around 2015.

Political history

The exact age of the Swedish kingdom’s history is not certain. The beginning date can also begin with the Svears, one of the old Germanic tribes of Sweden, founding Svealand, and some historians accept that this tribe united with the Goths and established a new state as the beginning of Sweden’s political history. Sweden was first ruled by Tacitus in 98 with a single monarch, but it’s almost impossible to know how long it lasted. However, historians often begin the Swedish monarchy with Svealand and Götaland ruled under the same single king, the 10th century kings named Erik the Victor and his son Olof Skötkonung. These events are often described as the consolidation of Sweden, although important areas were conquered and continued thereafter.

There are no reliable historical sources for previous kings, information about them can be found in the mythical kings of Sweden and the semi-legendary kings of Sweden. Most of these kings are mentioned only in various Norse epics and related parts of Norse mythology.

The title Sveriges och Götes Konung was last used by Gustaf I, later in official documents this title was “Sweden-en:Kings of Sweden, Goth-en:King of the Goths and Wend king-en:King of the Wends” (Sveriges, Götes) och Vendes Konung). Until the early 1920s, all laws in Sweden began with the words, “We, the king of Sweden, Goth and Wend”. This usage continued until 1973.[56] The present king of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, was the first ruler to be formally referred to as the “king of Sweden” (Sveriges Konung) without adding additional peoples to his title.

The term Riksdag was first used in the 1540s, although representatives of different social groups first met in the city of Arboga in 1435 to identify and discuss decisions affecting the country.

Under King Gustav Vasa, from 1527 to 1544, representatives of all four classes (clergy, Swedish nobility, townsmen, and peasants) were called to the assembly for the first time to become members. The monarchy became hereditary in 1544.

Executive power was historically shared between the King and a noble Privy Council until 1680, following the king’s autocratic rules, the parliament became general. As a result of the failure in the Great Northern War, the country switched to a parliamentary system in 1719, followed by three different constitutional monarchies in 1772, 1789 and 1809, and many civil rights were guaranteed by the Swedish constitution of 1809. Although the kingdom has officially retained its position, the presidency is only symbolic with its ceremonial duties.

The Riksdag Assembly consists of two different parts. Sweden transitioned to a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament in 1866, the First Assembly elected by local governments and the Second Assembly directly elected by the people every four years. In 1971 the Riksdag became unicameral. Legislative power was shared (symbolically) between the king and parliament until 1975. The Swedish tax system-en:taxation is controlled by the Riksdag (parliament).

Modern political system

The Swedish assembly (riksdag), with 349 members legally, is a very important political unit of Sweden. The parliament has the power to elect the prime minister and appoint ministers. In addition, the legislative power is under the joint authority of the parliament and the prime minister. The executive power of the country is exercised by the government. In addition, the judicial function is carried out by independent courts. Sweden is a country without mandatory judicial control. However, this non-mandatory control is exercised by the lagrådet (law council). This judicial control is more about technical matters and less about controversial political events. Regardless of the parliament’s attitude and the government’s decisions, especially if the situation is against the law, what the government wants to do is not implemented. However, due to various limitations in judicial control and weak judicial mandate, this is very rarely enforced.

Political formations

Sweden has a strong tradition of political participation by ordinary people, through “popular movements” (Folkrörelser), most notably the trade unions, the independent Christian movement, the “anti-drink” movement, the women’s movement and – more recently – the sports movement.

Law and the judicial system

The Swedish Supreme Court (Supreme Court of Sweden) is the third and final court for cases arising from civil and criminal law. Before a case can be brought to the Supreme Court, permission to appeal must first be obtained, and with a few exceptions, permission to appeal is granted only if the subject matter of the case is exemplary. The Supreme Court consists of 16 members (justitieråd) appointed by the government. However, the court is an independent institution from the parliament (Riksdag) and the government has no right to interfere with the court’s decisions.

Law in Sweden is enforced by various organs of the state. The Swedish Police Service is a government agency that deals with issues involving the police. The National Task Force is a national SWAT unit within the National Criminal Investigation Department. The responsibilities of the Swedish Secret Service are counter-espionage, the fight against terrorist activities, the protection of the constitution and the protection of sensitive objects and people.

According to a survey of 1201 crimes in 2005, the crime rate in Sweden is higher than the average compared to other EU countries. The rates of assault, sexual assault, hate crime and consumer fraud are high or above average in Sweden. On the other hand, the rate of robbery, car theft and drug problems is low. Bribery is rare.

Economy

The Swedish economy is a developed export-oriented economy supported by timber, hydropower and iron ore. These form the resource base of a trade-oriented economy. Major industries include motor vehicle manufacturing, telecommunications, pharmaceuticals, industrial machinery manufacturing, precision equipment, chemical products, household goods and appliances, forestry, and iron and steel production. While it was traditionally a modern agricultural economy using more than half of the local workforce, today Sweden is a highly competitive engineering, mining, and mining, internationally competitive economy, as evidenced by organizations such as Ericsson, ASEA/ABB, SKF, Alfa Laval, AGA, and Dyno Nobel. further develops the steel, paper and pulp industries.

Sweden is a competitive mixed economy with a model sometimes referred to as the Scandinavian model, a universal welfare state financed by relatively high income taxes, a distribution of incomes throughout society. About 90% of all resources and companies are privately owned, 5% are state-owned, and 5% are active as consumer or producer cooperatives.

Sweden, as a neutral country, World War II. Because it did not participate actively in World War II, it did not have to restructure its economic base, banking system and the country as a whole, as in many other European countries. Sweden has achieved a high standard of living in a mixed system of hi-tech capitalism and comprehensive welfare rights. Sweden is the country with the second highest total tax revenue after Denmark. As of 2012, total tax revenue accounted for 44.2% of GDP, compared to 48.3% in 2006.

In the 19th century, Sweden evolved from a largely agricultural economy to the beginning of an industrialized, urbanized country. Poverty was still widespread. However, the country’s incomes were high enough to finance immigration to distant places, prompting much of the country to move specifically to the United States. In the last half of the 19th century, a modern economic system was created with economic innovations, banks and companies. With a strong industrialization process that started in the 1860s, Sweden became the “active power” of the Scandinavian region during this period. Moreover, the “Swedish Riksdag” had developed into a very active Parliament in the “Era of Freedom” (1719–72), and this tradition continued into the nineteenth century to lay the foundation for the transition to modern democracy at the end of that century. The result of relatively high levels of human capital formation as well as innovations and related government policies, such local democratic traditions were another asset that made it possible for the Scandinavian countries, including Sweden, to “not lag behind”, and this economic increase was probably the most significant in that region in the nineteenth century. value appeared to be fact.

In the 1930s, Sweden achieved what Life magazine called “the world’s highest standard of living” in 1938. Sweden declared itself neutral during both world wars, thus avoiding too much physical destruction, taking advantage of new conditions, especially after the First World War—for example, the increasing demand for raw materials and foodstuffs and the disappearance of international competition for exports. country has reached. The post-war boom was the continuation of strong inflationary trends during the war, and this brought Sweden to greater economic prosperity. The change in living standards in Sweden from the 1970s to the deep recession of the early 1990s developed less favorably than in many other industrialized countries. Since the mid-1990s, economic performance has tended to improve.

In 2009, Sweden had the world’s highest GDP per capita in nominal (nominal) terms and was ranked 14th in terms of PPP.

Sweden, II. In the post-World War II period, the government had an economic model with close cooperation between unions and companies. The Swedish economy is one with comprehensive and universal social benefits, also financed by high taxes, and this scales to close to 50% of GDP. In the 1980s, a real estate and financial bubble emerged, driven by a rapid increase in credit facilities. The restructuring of the tax system to highlight the low inflation coupled with the international economic slowdown of the early 1990s caused the bubble to burst. Between 1990 and 1993 GDP decreased by 5% and unemployment increased; this caused the worst economic depression in Sweden since the 1930s. According to an analysis published in Computer Sweden in 1992, the investment business, apart from the finance and banking business, as part of the crisis-creating business, caused the level of investment in information technology and computing hardware to drop drastically. Investment levels for information technology and computers were restored in early 1993. In 1992, a transaction was made on the currency; the central bank unsuccessfully increased the interest rate by up to 500% to defend the fixed exchange rate of money. Total employment fell by about 10% during the financial crisis.

A real estate boom ended in a crash. The government took over its banking assets, which had dwindled to about a quarter, at a cost of about 4% of the country’s GDP. This is commonly known colloquially as the “Stockholm Solution”. In 2007, the US Federal Reserve wrote in a note, “In the early 1970s, Sweden had one of the highest incomes in Europe, today, its leadership has disappeared… So even well-managed financial crises don’t really have a happy ending.” stated as.

The welfare system, which had grown rapidly since the 1970s, could not be sustained with a falling GDP, lower employment and larger welfare payments. In 1994, the government’s budget deficit exceeded 15% of GDP. The government’s response was to cut spending and introduce multiple reforms to increase Sweden’s competitiveness. In the international economic outlook, Sweden’s stance on capitalization combined with rapid growth in its well-positioned IT business, the country managed to emerge from the crisis.

The crisis of the 1990s led some to see it as the end of multiple welfare models, which some have called the “Svenska models”, literally the “Swedish Model”, just as government spending at levels previously experienced in Sweden proved unsustainable in the long run in the global open economy. . Many of the admirable achievements of the Swedish Model—such as Sweden remaining unrivaled untouched when competitors’ economies were relatively weak—actuated in World War II. It had to be seen as a result of the special situation after World War II.

However, the reforms enacted in the 1990s seem to have established a model by which comprehensive prosperity can be achieved in the global economy.

Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy with a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communication, and a skilled workforce. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of the economy for foreign trade. Sweden’s engineering jobs account for 50% of production and exports. Telecommunications, automotive and pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Agriculture accounts show employment corresponding to 2 percent of GDP.

Top 20 Swedish companies by turnover in 2013 Volvo, Ericsson, [[Vattenfall, Skanska, Hennes & Mauritz, Electrolux, Volvo Personvagnar, Preem, TeliaSonera, Sandvik, ICA, Atlas Copco, Nordea, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, Scania, Securitas, Nordstjernan , SKF, ABB Norden Holding and Sony Mobile Communications AB. In Sweden’s industry, Public and State control plays an overwhelming role; A prime example of this is LKAB, a state-owned mining company that holds the largest market share in the country.

Approximately 4.5 million people are in the workforce, and more than a third of them are employed as higher education graduates. According to hourly GDP in 2013, Sweden is the 11th highest country in the world at $55.28. According to the OECD, deregulation, globalization and technology industry growth have been key productivity drivers. GDP per hour worked has allowed the economy as a whole to grow by 2.5% and trade-balanced productivity growth to 2%. Sweden is the world leader in private pension system and pension fund problems are minor compared to other Western European countries. The Swedish labor market has become more flexible, but it still has some widely recognized problems. A normal worker receives only 40% of his income after the tax deduction. Gradually decreasing overall taxation was 51.1% of GDP in 2007; this is still about double that in the United States or Ireland. Civil servants make up a third of the Swedish workforce, many times more than in many other countries. Overall, GDP growth has been rapid since the early 1990s, especially since the reorganizations in the manufacturing industry.

The World Economic Forum ranked Sweden as the 4th most competitive country in the 2012-2013 competitiveness index. According to the 2012 Index of Economic Freedom, Sweden was ranked 21st out of 179 countries, or 10th out of 43 European countries. Sweden ranked 9th in the IMD 2008 Competitiveness Yearbook, scoring high in private industry productivity. According to the study, “The Rise of the Creative Class,” Professor Richard Florida, of the University of Toronto US City Studies, ranked Sweden as the country with the best creativity for business in Europe and a talent magnet for the world’s most talented employees. The book created an index to measure the type of creativity that it claims is most useful for business talent, technology, and tolerance. Sweden’s investment in research and development amounted to over 3.5% of GDP in 2007. This is significantly higher than a number of MEDCs (“More economically developed country”), including the United States, and is the largest among OECD members.

Sweden refused to switch to the euro in a referendum in 2003 and retained the circulation of its own currency, the Swedish krona (SEK). Established in 1668 and the oldest central bank in the world, the Swedish Riksbank currently focuses on price stability of the 2% inflation target. According to the OECD’s 2007 Swedish Economic Survey, average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mid-1990s, largely due to the deregulation and rapid benefits of globalization.

The largest trade flows are with Germany, the United States, Norway, the United Kingdom, Denmark and Finland.

The economic outlook of the Swedes had brightened considerably since the severe recession of the early 1990s. Although growth has been strong in recent years and economic growth has slowed between 2001 and 2003, the economy has recovered with an average growth rate of 3.7% over the last three years. Long-term growth prospects are positive. Inflation rate is low and remains stable and stable with continued low level assessments over the next 2-3 years.

Since the mid-1990s, exports have acted as the main driver of economic growth. This proves that Swedish exports are also surprisingly strong. The marked change in the export structure, which the IT business and telecommunications took over from traditional industries such as steel, paper and pulp, has made Swedish exports more vulnerable to international fluctuations. At the same time, however, import prices have increased, while Swedish industry is able to provide less resources for its exports. In the period of 1995-2003, while export values ​​decreased by 4%, import prices increased by 11%. As a net effect, Swedish trading conditions fell 13%.

By 2014, legislators, economists, and the IMF warned that a bubble had formed, indicating that residential real estate prices were on a rising streak and the level of personal real estate mortgage debt was widening. Household income-to-income debt has risen to over 170%, with the IMF calling on legislators to consider zoning reform and other ways to create more housing supply as demand rises. As of August 2014, 40% of home borrowers had interest-only loans, with those unable to repay at a rate that would take 100 years to fully repay.

Infrastructure: Energy and transport

Sweden’s energy market is largely privatised. The Scandinavian energy market is the first energy market to be liberalized in Europe and is traded within the Nord Pool. In 2006, 61 … (44%) of the 139 kvs production was obtained from hydroelectric energy and 65o (47%) from nuclear energy. Likewise, 13 TWh (9%) of energy was produced from organic fuels such as biofuel and coal, and 1TWh (1%) from wind energy. Sweden receives an average of 6 times its energy from abroad every year. Biomass is generally used in district heating, central heating and industrial processes.

On the other hand, Sweden has passed a law that will ban the use of gasoline vehicles in 2025. In addition, Sweden uses 54.5% of renewable energy as of 2021.

After the 1973 Oil Crisis, Sweden decided to reduce the use of fossil fuels. Since then, the most weighty production area of electrical energy is provided by nuclear and hydroelectric energy. However, the use of nuclear resources is still limited. Again, as a result of the Three Mile Island accident in the United States in 1979, the Swedish government began to prevent the opening of new nuclear power plants.

Education

Sweden is one of the most developed countries in education in the world. Children 1-5 years old attend a public kindergarten. (Swedish: förskola or dagis). There is compulsory education between the ages of 6 and 16.

Population

As of 2008, the population of the country is 9,234,209. The population number exceeded nine million for the first time since August 12, 2004. The population density in the country is only twenty people per square kilometer. This rate is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Eighty-five percent of the population in Sweden lives in urban areas. The capital city of Stockholm has a population of approximately 800,000 (1.3 million including the urban area and approximately 2 million including the entire surrounding area). Gothenburg and Malmö are the second and third largest settlements in the country, respectively.

In 2007, 13.4% of the population (1.23 million) were people born abroad. Among the reasons for this are migrations between Scandinavian countries, labor migration and immigration of refugees to the country. While Sweden was a country of emigration until the end of World War I, II. It became a country of immigration after the end of World War II. A total of 99,485 people immigrated to the country in 2007.

As of 2007, Finland is one of the countries with the highest number of immigrants to Sweden. It is followed by people born in Yugoslavia, Iraq, Poland, Iran, Denmark, Germany, Norway, Turkey, Chile, Lebanon, Thailand, Somalia, United Kingdom, Syria, China and the United States. In the last decade, Iraq, Poland, Thailand, Somalia and China are at the forefront of these countries.

As a result of the laws introduced in 1967 that made immigration from outside the Scandinavian countries difficult, the Scandinavian immigrant population immigrated to the country between 1969 and 1970, reaching its highest point in history with 40,000. Again, the refugee rate in the country increased rapidly after the end of the 1980s, thanks to the refugees who came and settled in the country as refugees and their relatives. Refugees, especially from Iran and Chile, had a higher momentum. During the 1990s, countries that broke away from Yugoslavia and Middle East countries were added to these countries. Thanks to the new law enacted on December 15, 2008, recruitment of workers from outside the European Union became easier. Thus, the number of workers from India, China and the United States began to increase.

Language

The most spoken language in Sweden is Swedish, which is a North Germanic language and is closely related to languages ​​such as Danish and Norwegian. However, Swedish differs in form and pronunciation from these other North Germanic languages. A Norwegian-speaking person can understand a Swedish speech, albeit with difficulty. Again, a Danish speaker may be able to understand conversations with a little more difficulty than a Norwegian speaker. Although Swedish is the most spoken language in Sweden, it is not an official language in the country. Swedish Finns also form the second largest language group in Sweden. Spoken by three percent of the country’s population, Finnish is considered a minority language. Other minority languages ​​in the country are Meänkieli, Sami, Romani and Yiddish. A 2005 parliamentary proposal to make Swedish the state language was rejected by a borderline vote.

A large part of the people know some foreign languages ​​such as English as a foreign language due to their affinity with the Anglo-American culture. II. Swedes born after World War II can learn English quite easily due to commercial connections, the popularity of overseas trips, Anglo-American influences and the dominance of subtitle culture in films. In Sweden, English is the compulsory foreign language in high schools. Depending on the decisions of the regional education institutions, English is taught between first and ninth grades. Apart from these, languages ​​such as French, German and Spanish are also taught as a second foreign language. Again, examples from Danish and Norwegian are covered in Swedish courses.

Religion

Before the 11th century, the Swedes believed in Scandinavian paganism and worshiped the Æsir gods. Uppsala was the center of temples. With the Christianization in the 11th century, the laws of the country were changed. Worshiping other gods was forbidden until the 19th century. After the development of Protestantism in the 1530s, Martin Luther’s Swedish institution, Olaus Petri, had a significant impact in the country. During this period, the bond between church and state and the country’s ties with the Roman Catholic diocese were severed. In this way, Lutheranism began to dominate the country. This process was completed with the establishment of the Uppsala Ecclesiastical Assembly, which took place in 1593. During the period that followed the Reformation, often called the Lutheran Orthodoxy, small non-Luteran groups such as Calvinists, Dutch, Wallonians, and Moravian Church members played an active role in commerce and industry, and were quite tolerated as long as they kept their religious outlook low. While the Semitic communities in the north originally had shamanic beliefs, they gradually began to adopt the Protestant sect as of the 17th and 18th centuries, under the influence of Swedish Lutheran missionaries.

Although the country did not become liberalized until the end of the 18th century, people of other faiths such as Judaism and Catholicism gained the right to live and work comfortably. However, until 1860 it was illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion in Sweden. With the arrival of secular churches in the 19th century, secularism came to an end at the end of the century, with the gap between the public and church ceremonies. The abandonment of the Swedish Church was legalized by what was then known as the 1860 law of opposition, by making it compulsory for a person to convert to another denomination. The full right to renounce religious denominations was realized by the Freedom of Religion Act of 1951.

Today, 57.7% of the Swedish population is affiliated with the Church of Sweden, which is Lutheran. However, this number is decreasing by about 1% every year. Also, church services are only used by a single-digit percentage of the population. The reason for the existence of this large inactive group was that until 1996, every child was automatically made a member of the Church of Sweden if at least one of their parents was affiliated with the Church of Sweden. However, after 1996, only those who were baptized became members of this church. In addition, about 275,000 Swedes are members of various secular churches. The percentage of attendance at these secular churches is much higher. Apart from this, 92,000 Catholics and 100,000 Orthodox live in the country due to immigration to the country. For the same reason, there is also an important Muslim segment in the country. Only 5% (25,000 people) of nearly half a million Muslims in the country regularly perform their prayers and attend Friday prayers.

Health

The quality of health services in Sweden is similar to other developed countries. Sweden is one of the five countries with the lowest infant mortality rate in the world. The average life expectancy and the rate of safe drinking water in the country are high. Any Swedish citizen seeking treatment has access to doctors in a short time. Again, many different types of treatment can be requested. Health services in the country are covered by the budgets given by the government, as well as undertaken by the 21 provincial councils. Citizens living in Sweden and anyone with a social security number can benefit from free health services. However, if they exceed 1150 Swedish Krona within one year from the date of the first treatment, they do not pay any contribution. This figure is 2350 Swedish Krona for medicines. No medication or examination contribution is taken for chronic diseases.

Science and technology

Being an advanced industrial state, Sweden is the pioneer of many scientific and technological developments that have a voice around the world. Again, the research and development part of the public sector and the private sector receives a share of approximately 4% of the country’s gross domestic product. In this context, Sweden is one of the countries with the highest percentage of R&D investments. The standard of research activities in Sweden is very high and the country is a world leader in many fields. Sweden is the country that makes the most R&D investments and has the highest number of scientific studies per capita in Europe.

The Swedish government is striving to strengthen R&D practices and set high priorities in the scientific field. In this respect, Sweden can be shown as one of the most innovative states. Sweden, which has been among the pioneers among OECD countries with its high technology investments and use for many years, is in a developed state in almost all advanced technology and industrial fields, especially in the fields of pharmaceutical and communication, in international comparison.

Looking at the statistics, during the period 1970-2003, Sweden’s innovation system is at the forefront of the technological innovation development ranking calculated according to the relationship of patented products with population size among OECD countries. Looking at the patenting criteria, Sweden is second only to Switzerland, surpassing the United States, European Union and Japan.

The Swedish economy has a knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector.

Culture

Sweden has many world-renowned artists. These include August Strindberg, Astrid Lindgren, and Nobel Prize winners Selma Lagerlöf and Harry Martinson. The country has a total of seven Nobel Prizes for Literature (as of 2010). World-renowned painters born in the country include Carl Larsson and Anders Zorn. In addition, sculptors Tobias Sergel and Carl Milles are also recognized in the art of sculpture.

In the 20th century cultural history of the country, films, which are among the first cinema works, have an important place. These early examples of cinema include works by famous Swedish actors such as Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström. filmmaker Ingmar Bergman from the 1920s to the 1980s; actresses Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman achieved wide international recognition. In recent years, films by names such as Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström have also had a wide audience.

Sexuality

During the 1960s and 1970s, Sweden also took a leading role in the cultural movement known as the “sexual revolution”, which advocated gender equality. Today, the number of singles in Sweden is quite high by world standards. I Am Curious (Yellow) (1967), an old Swedish film, touches on the liberal aspect of sexuality alongside the lovemaking scenes it contains. This style became known as “Swedish sin” (Swedish sin) after that period. Sweden also has a libertarian stance on homosexuality. For example, in the movie Fucking Åmål, the lives of two young lesbians in the small Swedish city of Åmål are told. In Sweden, same-sex couples got the right to marry in May 2009. In addition, both domestic partnerships and registered partnerships are allowed. Cohabitation (sammanboende) of all ages and genders is common throughout the country.

Racism and terrorism

Swedish nationalism was strongly adopted as state policy until the mid-20th century. The warlike state policy with neighbors and overseas countries for centuries went along with nationalist propaganda, and the idea that the Swedes were a deep-rooted superior race became widely accepted. II. The collaboration with the Nazis during World War II also left deep traces in the social memory and strengthened the idea of the “superior Swede”.

Kitchen

Swedish cuisine shows a relatively poor variety of ingredients and is similar to other Scandinavian cuisines in this respect. Fish (especially herring), meat and potatoes have an important place in Swedish cuisine. Spices are used relatively little because they grow little on Swedish soil. The pinnacle of Swedish cuisine is Swedish meatballs, traditionally served with broth and boiled potatoes. Among the Swedish foods, with the exception of meatballs, the most well-known are Knäckebröd (a dry, hard, russ-like ‘crispy bread’) and lingon (wild cranberry jam). Among the local dishes, Surströmming (a kind of fish dish from Northern Sweden) and eel in Southern Sweden can be given as examples. Akvavit is the most common distilled liquor.

Cinema

Sweden has been very successful in film over the years, with many successful Swedish Hollywood actors: Ingrid Bergman, Greta Garbo, Max von Sydow, Dolph Lundgren, Lena Olin, Stellan Skarsgård, Peter Stormare, Izabella Scorupco, Pernilla August, Ann-Margret, Anita Ekberg, Alexander Skarsgård, Harriet Andersson, Bibi Andersson, Ingrid Thulin, Malin Akerman and Gunnar Björnstrand. Among the many directors can be mentioned directors who have made internationally successful films: Ingmar Bergman, Lukas Moodysson, and Lasse Hallström.

Media

The main newspapers operating in Sweden are Dagens Nyheter, Expressen, Afton Bladet and Svenska Dagbladet. The state television of the country is SVT. On the other hand, news broadcasts are made on SVT’s SVT24 channel. The most listened state radios of the country are P1, P2, P3, P4 and P6. In these radios, broadcasts with news and discussion content are made and up-to-date information about the road conditions in the country is shared with the listeners.

Fashion

In Sweden, Hennes & Mauritz (business name H&M), Kappahl, Lindex,J. Famous brands such as Lindeberg (business name JL), Acne, Gina Tricot, Tiger of Sweden, Odd Molly, Dagmar, Cheap Monday, Gant, Lexington, Svea, Resteröds, Nudie Jeans, WESC and Filippa K have their headquarters. These companies, in other words fashion companies, have a large buyer base in Europe and America.

Sport

Thanks to the government’s great support for sports organizations (föreningsstöd), sports events are a national movement in which about half of the population actively participates. The two most watched sports are football and ice hockey. Among the most important ice hockey players in the country are Mats Sundin, Peter Forsberg, Henrik Lundqvist, Markus Näslund, Daniel Sedin, Henrik Sedin, Daniel Alfredsson, Henrik Zetterberg and Nicklas Lidström.

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