Netherlands

  Europe, Netherlands

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Western Europe and partially in the Caribbean. It is the largest of the four countries that make up the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Netherlands consists of twelve European provinces bordering Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, and three special municipalities in the Caribbean: Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba.

The Netherlands is a European country ruled by a constitutional monarchy. The Netherlands is a country with a high population density. The majority of the country’s land is below sea level. The Netherlands is a member of the European Union, NATO, and OECD. The Netherlands is also part of the Schengen Area and Benelux community. It is one of the three countries that make up the Benelux countries, along with Belgium and Luxembourg. It also signed the Kyoto Convention. The country is home to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Court and Europol.

The country is especially known for its cheeses, windmills, bicycles, tulips, cows called Holstein and social rights. Same-sex marriage is legal in the Netherlands.

Name of country

The name Holland actually comes from the Province of Holland, the most important province of the United Kingdom of the United Netherlands, only from the northwestern part of the country. It is called the Netherlands for short. Since the second half of the 19th century, this province has been divided into two separate provinces: North Holland (Capital: Haarlem) and South Holland (Capital: The Hague: Den Haag). The Dutch expression “Netherlands” is used only for these two states.

In countries outside the Netherlands, Dutch are often referred to as “Dutch”, and the Dutch tourism industry and other industries also market their country as “Netherlands” (in both English and German). Dutch people who do not come from the province of the Netherlands harbor a certain dislike for the name “Netherlands” for “Nederland” and “Dutch” for “Nederlander”, since the eponymous region, the Netherlands, is not liked by everyone in the rest of the country.

The English name “Dutch” originated from Middle Dutch forms such as “duutsc”. Middle Dutch forms such as “duutcs” and “dietsc” are names for popular dialects and serve to distinguish these dialects from Latin, the language of government, science, and the church. The forms “Dutch” and “duutsc” are related to the German word “deutsch” and come from the same root. The French, on the other hand, define this region as Pays-Bas, ‘low country’.

History

The provinces of North Holland (South Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overijssel, Groningen and Friesland) affiliated to the Union of Utrecht, on July 26, 1581, the king of Spain II. They declared their independence from Felipe. The independence of the Dutch provinces was recognized in the Treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648. This was approximately the territory of the later Netherlands, which was to be established. By contrast, the areas south of this region, including the Flanders, remained in the kingdom; Later, Belgium gained independence in this region. After this date, two societies began to be mentioned, namely the North Dutch and the South Dutch.

The Congress of Vienna briefly united the north and south as an independent country, the Kingdom of the Netherlands. However, the southern Dutch (Dutch) had already declared their independence under the name Belgium in 1830. (“Belgica” is the name of an ancient Roman province, and during the Renaissance this expression was used as the Latin name for the Netherlands, including the north.)

The Netherlands remained neutral throughout World War I. However, II. It was occupied by the Germans in World War II. On May 10, 1940, Nazi Germany invaded Belgium and the Netherlands. Also in 1942, Japan invaded Indonesia, a Dutch colony. After the war ended, Indonesia declared its independence.

Geography

The country is divided into two main regions by three major rivers. These rivers are the Rhine and its main tributaries, the Waal and Meuse rivers. Since these rivers formed the border between feudal lords in history, they caused some cultural differences.

The southwest of the Netherlands is a river delta, from which the two branches of the River Scheldt flow into the sea. Only one branch of the Rhine flows northeast, which is the IJssel River and empties into the IJsselmeer. This river also creates a linguistic divide, with those living east of the river speaking the Dutch Lower Saxon dialect.

The territory of the country was formed during the Quaternary period. Its soils are generally composed of alluvium, moraine, sediments and clay.

Most of the Netherlands lies below sea level. The highest point in the country’s European territory is the Vaalserberg peak with an altitude of 322 meters. Founded in 1287, St. The Lucia Flood caused 50,000 deaths in the country and is one of the deadliest floods in history. The last major flood in the Netherlands occurred in 1953, 9% of the agricultural land of the Netherlands was flooded in the flood, 1835 people died in the country.

There is a large amount of land gained from the sea in the country. During the Zuiderzeewerken study in the 1930s, approximately 2,500 square kilometers of land were recovered from the sea. The lands obtained from the studies for soil acquisition from the sea are called polder.

Economy

The Netherlands has a very strong economy and has played a special role in the European economy for centuries. Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, trade and banking have been the most important sectors of the Dutch economy. The Netherlands is one of the top ten exporting countries in the world.

The Netherlands has the 27th largest economy in the world by PPP as of 2021 and is the 11th richest country in the world with $60,461 per capita. Between 1997 and 2000, annual growth was around 4%, well above the European average. Although the growth slowed down along with the whole world between 2001 and 2005, it rose to 4.1% again in the third quarter of 2007. According to Eurostat, the unemployment rate in the Netherlands was 4.8% as of October 2011, the lowest rate among European Union countries.

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