Ecuador

  Ecuador, South America

Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador, is a representative democracy in South America. It borders Colombia to the north, Peru to the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Located in the Pacific Ocean, 965 kilometers west of the mainland, the Galapagos Islands are also within the country’s borders. The country is divided into two by the equator, from which it takes its name.

History

It has about 3 separate independence dates.

After the Spanish rule, Quito was a city of ten thousand people. On August 10, 1809, in Quito, under the leadership of Carlos Montúfar, Eugenio Espejo, and Bishop Cuero y Caicedo, there was a popular demand for independence from Spain.

Ecuador is also the Latin American country to make the first call to secede from Spain. On October 9, 1820, Guayaquil was the first Ecuadorian city to gain its independence. On May 24, 1822, the Ecuadorian army under the command of Marshal Antonio José de Sucre defeated Spain at the Battle of Pichincha near Quito and achieved its independence.

In the 19th century, there was an imbalance in Ecuador caused by the rapid change of rulers. In 1941, the tension between them and Peru turned into a war. Peru claims that Ecuador has a military presence in the areas it declares as its territory, which is also an occupation. Ecuador claims the opposite. In July 1941, both armies went into action. As Peru entered the war with 11,681 soldiers, they faced an Ecuadorian army of 5,300 soldiers who were poorly trained and under-reinforced. On July 5, 1941, Peruvian forces settled the Zarumilla river. On July 23, 1941, he crossed the river and began to head into Ell Oro. Ecuador was thus forced to withdraw from the war.

In the 1960s, market stagnation and social unrest led to populist policies and military intervention. Meanwhile, foreign companies discovered oil deposits near the Amazon. In 1972, the construction of the Andes pipeline, which carried oil from the east to the coastline, made Ecuador the second largest oil exporting country in South America. Many years of mismanagement, beginning with the mismanagement of the country’s debts during the military regime in the 1970s, made the country essentially unmanageable. Since the mid-1990s, the government of Ecuador has been characterized as a weak class that has struggled to appease the ruling class represented in the legislature and judiciary.

The emergence of indigenous people as active voters has had an impact on the country’s democratic volatility in recent years. The population was motivated by land reform, a reduction in unemployment, and providing social services to make up for previous faults in government. This move resulted in the corruption of the executive.

Politics

The Constitution grants the president, vice president, and members of parliament the right to serve four years. There are 15 ministries. Provincial administrators and council members are directly elected. Parliament does not meet in July and December due to holidays. There are 20 seven-member parliamentary committees. Members of the Supreme Court are elected by the assembly for an indefinite term.

Ecuador is a member of the United Nations. It is also involved in many regional communities.

Geography

Ecuador consists of three main regions and an island in the Pacific Ocean.

La Costa includes the low-lying coastline in the west of the country, including the Pacific Ocean.
La Sierra is the high-altitude region that runs through the middle of the country, stretching from north to south.
El Oriente covers the Amazon rainforest in the east of the country. It covers about half of the country’s surface area.
Región Insular, Galapagos Islands located in the Pacific Ocean in the west of the country.
The geographical location of Ecuador, which consists of three main regions, also creates the climate difference. This climate difference; In addition to tropical fruits such as bananas and pineapples, it also enables the cultivation of plants such as cocoa and coffee, and agricultural products of different climates such as rice, sugar, tobacco, corn, potatoes, apples and tangerines.

The country consists of 22 states and each state has its own administrative centre.

Culture

The most popular sport in the country, like other South American countries, is football. The matches of the Ecuador national team are the most watched sporting event in the country. In June 2007, FIFA banned matches from being held at 2,500 meters or more above sea level. Rafael Correa and his colleagues in Peru, Bolivia and Colombia prepared a joint letter to protest this rule.

Ecuador qualified for the 2002 FIFA World Cup and the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Finishing ahead of Poland and Costa Rica in Group A at the 2006 FIFA World Cup; It ranked second after Germany. Futsal is also popular among the community.

Types of food in Ecuador are very diverse. It changes with altitude and agricultural conditions. Pork, chicken, beef, a wide variety of cereals, along with potatoes or rice, are popular in the highlands. The street food sold in the highlands of Ecuador is potatoes with roasted pork. There are many types of fruit, especially in the lowlands. Shrimp and lobster are indispensable food items of coastal areas.

The 1991 film Sensaciones was shot in Ecuador and was directed by Ecuadorian sisters Juan Esteban Cordero and Viviana Cordero. Viviana Cordero later appeared in the films Ratas, Ratones, y Rateros and Un Titán en el Ring.

Apart from movies, a large number of books are published in Ecuador. The most important of these are Rod Glenn’s science fiction novel The King of America and Kurt Vonnegut’s science fiction novel Galapagos.

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