Denmark

  Denmark, Europe

Denmark, or officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. Most of Denmark, located in the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, is on the Jylland peninsula. The capital is built on Sjælland, the largest of the Danish islands. Sjælland is separated from Sweden by the narrow strait Sont Strait. In addition, the islands of Fyn, Lolland, Falster, Langeland and Bornholm in the Baltic Sea belong to Denmark.

The Kingdom of Denmark is constitutionally a unitary state that includes Denmark and two autonomous regions in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark covers a total area of ​​42,943 square kilometers (16,580 sq mi) as of 2020 and a total area of ​​2,210,579 square kilometers (853,509 sq mi), including Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Denmark has a population of 5.83 million as of 2020.

The united kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 8th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark, Sweden, and Norway were the centers of the Kalmar Union, which was formed in 1397 and ended with the secession of Sweden in 1523. Denmark-Norway was ruled from Copenhagen until 1814. Beginning in the 17th century, it was defeated by the war with the Swedish Empire and suffered great territorial losses: After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark managed to maintain its dominance over the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Iceland. In the 19th century, Denmark, which was defeated in the First Schleswig War, saw an increase in nationalist movements as a result of successive defeats. After the Second Schleswig War in 1864, Denmark lost the Duchy of Schleswig to Prussia. Although Denmark remained neutral during World War I, the northern half of Schleswig was re-incorporated into Denmark after Germany lost the war in 1920. II. Occupied by Germany during World War II, the country had a highly developed mixed economy in the early 20th century.

Ending the absolute monarchy in 1660, the country adopted its constitution on June 5, 1849. As a constitutional monarchy, the state’s national parliament is located in Copenhagen, the country’s capital, largest city, and main commercial centre. Denmark became a member of the European Economic Community (now the European Union) in 1973, but uses its own currency, the krone, instead of the euro.

Danes enjoy a high standard of living, and the country ranks high on some national performance measures, including education, health care, civil liberties protection, democratic governance and LGBT equality. It is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, the OSCE and the United Nations; it is also part of the Schengen Area. Denmark also has close linguistic ties to its Scandinavian neighbors, with the Danish language being partially mutually intelligible with both Norwegian and Swedish.

Etymology

Most etymological dictionaries and handbooks derive the word “Dan” (German: Tenne) from a word meaning “flat land”. It is thought to mean woodland or border land, although this is a possible reference to border forests in Southern Schleswig.

The first recorded use of the word danmark in Denmark appears as ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ ([danmɒrk]) on the large stone and genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ ([danmarkaɽ] on the small stone) on two Jelling stones believed to have been erected by Gorm (c. 955) and Harald Bluetooth (c. 965).

History

The first people to dominate Denmark were the 8th – 11th century Vikings. Known as a warlike nation, the Vikings established colonies in the west, reaching as far as Great Britain, Iceland, Greenland, and even North America. In the east, they established settlements extending to the shores of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Much of England remained under Viking rule during this period.

The Scandinavian Harald I (Danish) Harald the Blue Fang succeeded in establishing a kingdom by uniting Denmark and Norway for the first time in 980. He also accepted Christianity under the influence of German missionaries. In 1363, King of Denmark IV. Valdemar’s daughter Margaret I, King of Norway VI. By marrying Håkon, she united the two countries under one flag. In 1397, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and their colonies (Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, and Finland) united to form a major Scandinavian Empire under the name of the Kalmar Union.

In 1521, Sweden officially separated from the Kalmar Union. Meanwhile, Scandinavian countries were shaken by the Protestant Reformation initiated by Martin Luther in Germany. Denmark and Norway continued to act together under the name Denmark-Norway until 1821. In the early 19th century, Denmark was shaken to its foundations by the Napoleonic Wars. The British fleet attacked Copenhagen in 1801. When France, an ally of Denmark, lost the war, Denmark had to cede Norway to Sweden, which was a member of the winning side, in accordance with the Treaty of Kiel signed in 1814.

In the early years of the 20th century, Danish colonies in the Caribbean were sold to the United States. Denmark remained neutral in the World Wars. Denmark remained neutral in World War I. Denmark II. Although it remained neutral in World War II, it was occupied by Germany on April 9, 1940. The Danish army and Air force were weak and its territory was flat so within 4 hours Denmark was occupied. In response, the British army invaded the Faroe Islands and Iceland. Iceland declared its independence on 17 June 1944 and seceded from Denmark. The Faroe Islands were returned to Denmark in 1948.

After the World Wars, Denmark ended its policy of neutrality. It became a member of the United Nations in 1945. In 1949, it became one of the founding members of NATO. Denmark, which joined the European Union on January 1, 1973, prefers to stay out of the European Union on some issues. For example, when a referendum was rejected in 2000, Denmark preferred to stay out of the Euro Area.

Demography

According to Danish Statistics, 90.5% of the people living in Denmark are of Danish descent, which corresponds to 5 million of the Danish population. The remaining 9.5% is made up of immigrants from neighboring countries or predominantly Bosnians. The said immigrants came to the country with the Foreigner Law signed in 1983. In addition to immigration, Denmark also accepts ‘refugees’ with the right of asylum granted to foreigners. Although the number of asylum seekers decreased by 84% from 2001 to 2006, 1,960 asylum seekers took refuge in the country in 2006 alone.

The population of Denmark was determined as 5,557,709 in May 2010. The population of the country is mainly located on the island of Sjælland, located east of the strait, which is described as the Great Belt. Although the island of Sjælland (Zeland) is 9,622 km² (3,715 sq mi), only 22.7% of Denmark, the island both includes Copenhagen, the capital of the country, and 45% of the country’s population (2,465,348). ) is included. In the west, which is the rest of the country; that is, on Fyn (Fünen) Island and Denmark, which is connected to the European mainland, 3,010,443 live and cover an area of ​​32,772 km² (12,653 sq mi).

According to the 2006 census; the country’s average age is 39.8 years. There are 0.98 men for one woman. The literacy rate (over the age of 15) is 98.2% in Denmark, while the birth rate is 1.74.

Danish is the official language of the country. German and English are also widely spoken languages.

According to 2006 figures; 1,516,126 of people living in America are of Danish descent. In addition, there are 200,035 Danish descendants living in Canada.

Religion

The state religion is specified in the Danish Constitution. According to January 2012 figures, 79% of the population is a member of the Danish National Church (Den Danske Folkekirke). The church is of the Lutheran sect as determined by the Danish Constitution.

4% of Denmark’s population is Muslim, making them the second largest religious community in Denmark. Other religious groups are around 1% of the population.

According to a study conducted in Denmark in 2005; 31% of Danes believe that “there is a god”, 9% of the population believes that “there is a spirit or life force that is the source of our life” and 19% of the population believe that “there is no god, spirit, or life force”. According to a study conducted by Zuckerman in 2005, Denmark is the country with the fourth largest atheist or agnostic group density in the world.

State support for the Danish Church is mostly administrative. Membership in the Church of Denmark is voluntary, as the 1849 Constitution grants citizens freedom of belief. In 2012, almost 80% of the population belong to the Church of Denmark, which functions to a certain extent as an institution. Other religious societies are supported by exemption from taxation on donations to recognized religious institutions.

Economy

In the Transparency International 2013 Corruption Perceptions Index, it ranked first, along with New Zealand, with a score of 91 out of 100.

Corporate tax in Denmark is 23.5%, which is below the European Union average.

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