Brazil

  Brazil, South America

Brazil, or officially the Federal Republic of Brazil, is the largest and most populous country in South America. It is bordered by all South American countries except Brazil, Ecuador and Chile, which cover 47.7% of Latin America. Having a border with its neighbors of 12,000 km, Brazil borders Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest, Bolivia and Peru to the west, Colombia to the northwest, and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana to the north.

As the sixth most populous country in the world, Brazil has a population of approximately 210.2 million people as of 2019.

With thirteen cities with a population of over 1 million, Brazil’s largest cities are São Paulo (12.1 million) and Rio de Janeiro (6.6 million). On the Brazilian flag, the colors symbolize not the forests and mines, but the royal families who served in the past. In Brazil, the official language of which is Portuguese, the president, deputies, senators, governors, mayors, members of state and city councils are determined by elections held every four years. In the 2002 elections, in which 110 million voters participated, electronic ballot boxes were used in all regions.

64.6% of the population, whose per capita income is 15,000 dollars, is Catholic, 22.2% Protestant, 2% Spiritist, 3.2% belongs to other religions and 8% is irreligious. About 20 million of the Catholics also attend the rituals of religions of African origin.

In Brazil, 8 years of compulsory education is provided free of charge by public schools. In addition to public schools, private schools are also active, including higher education.

In addition to football, for which he is the world champion five times, volleyball, basketball, tennis, swimming, beach volleyball, surfing, auto racing and sailing are the sports branches in which Brazil has achieved worldwide success. In addition, capoeira and samba are folk events that attract attention all over the world, especially in the country’s African-based culture. It has added and is adding important players to world football.

History

On April 21, 1500, Pedro Alveras Cabral, a Portuguese sailor, set foot in South America with the thought of going to India and declared that he had conquered the country in the name of the Portuguese king. In 1530, during an expedition led by Martin Alfonso de Sousa, they established the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Vicente, which is the suburb of today’s city of Santos a year later, at strategic points.

The city of Piratiningo was also founded in 1532 in an elevated area near Sao Vicente. From 1580, when the Portuguese came under Spanish rule, to 1640, Brazil became a Spanish colony. In 1640, the Portuguese recaptured Brazil. The seat of government was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro in 1763. Because this place was more suitable to be a center geographically and strategically.

Abundant gold was found in Sao Paulo in 1698. Later, as a result of expeditions made inland to the Amazon basin, other gold mines were found. Although various feudal groups emerged in the region, they did not live long and united again.

In 1572, the system that divided Brazil into two, consisting of Salvador and Rio de Janeiro in terms of administration, continued until the 17th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spaniards, English, French and Germans tried to seize this region from time to time, but they could not succeed. Upon the invasion of Portugal by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1807, the royal family and some of the state’s dignitaries fled to Brazil and established their government headquarters in Rio de Janeiro the following year.

At this time, Brazil had a population of 2,500,000, of which 400,000 were whites, 1,300,000 blacks and 800,000 indigenous people. Blacks were brought from Africa as slaves in 1538 to work in the large sugarcane farms and mines. After Napoleon’s defeat to European states in 1819, King of Portugal VI. João returned to Portugal, leaving his son, Dom Pedro, as Governor-General of Brazil.

In 1822, when the Portuguese parliament wanted to restore the status of the first colony, the Brazilians started the independence movement led by Dom Pedro Jose Boni Facia de Andrada Silvan and declared their independence on September 7, 1822. The established Brazilian Empire passed a liberal constitution in 1824. After irregular wars, the Portuguese had to accept the independence of Brazil. The Brazilian Empire lasted until 1889.

Brazil was the only country in Latin America that was ruled by a monarchy for a long time. In 1831, Dom Pedro was forced to abdicate to his son, the Second Dom Pedro. The foundations of modern Brazil were laid during the reign of Dom Pedro II. In 1888, 800,000 peasants were liberated. In 1889, with a bloodless coup, the royal administration was overthrown and the republic administration was established. With the military coup on November 15, 1889, Emperor II. Pedro was overthrown and a republic was declared in the country, which had been ruled by a monarchy since 1822, and the leader of the coup, Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca, became the country’s first president. Providing political unity in 1914, Brazil was recognized by all the countries of the world.

Geography

Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes the interior of the continent, which shares its land borders with Uruguay to the south. It borders Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest, Bolivia and Peru to the west, Colombia to the northwest, and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana to the north. It borders every South American country except Ecuador and Chile. Apart from the Brazilian mainland, it also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, Trindade and Martim Vaz. Its size, relief, climate and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse. Brazil, including the Atlantic islands, lies between latitudes 6° and 34° and longitudes between 28° and 74°.

Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and the third largest in the Americas, with a total area of ​​8,515,767,049 km² (3,287,956 sq mi), of which 55,545 km² (21,411 sq mi) is water. It covers four time zones; The state of Acre and parts of the western part of Amazonas state from UTC – 5 to UTC – 4 in the western states, to UTC – 3 in the eastern states, and UTC – 2 in the Atlantic islands.

Brazil is the only country in the world that works on the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is also the only country with contiguous lands inside and outside the tropics. The topography of Brazil is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, plateaus and plains. Most of the terrain is between 200 meters (660 ft) and 800 meters (2,600 ft) elevation. The main highland region covers most of the southern half of the country. The northwestern parts of Plato consist of broad, rugged terrain broken by low, rounded hills.

The southeastern section is more rugged, with complex ridges and mountain ranges rising up to 1,200 meters (3,900 ft). These ranges include the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountains and the Serra do Mar. In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a large drainage compartment separating the rivers flowing from the north to the Amazon Basin, to the Orinoco River system in Venezuela in the south. Brazil’s highest point is Pico da Neblina at 2,994 meters (9,823 ft) and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.

Brazil has a dense and complex river system flowing into the Atlantic with eight major drainage basins, the most extensive in the world. Major rivers include the Amazon (the second longest river in the world and the largest by volume of water), the Paraná and Iguaçu (which also includes the Iguazu Falls), its main tributary Negro, the São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira, and Tapajós rivers.

Economy

The primary sector (agriculture and livestock) was responsible for about 5% of Brazil’s total GDP in 2019. In 2019, the industry moved R $ 322 billion from a total of R $ 7.3 billion. Taking into account the participation of agricultural industries (such as slaughterhouses) and the service sector of activity (such as freight transport), the agro-industry as a whole represents at least 20% of Brazilian GDP.

Brazil is the world’s largest producer of cane sugar, soy, coffee, oranges, guarana, açaí and Brazil nuts; is one of the 5 largest producers of maize, papaya, tobacco, pineapple, banana, cotton, beans, coconut, watermelon and lemon; is one of the 10 largest producers of cocoa, cashews, avocados, tangerines, dates, mangoes, guava, rice, sorghum and tomatoes; It is one of the world’s 15 largest producers of grapes, apples, melons, peanuts, figs, peaches, onions, palm oil and natural rubber.

In the production of animal protein, Brazil is today one of the largest countries in the world. In 2019, the country was the world’s largest exporter of chicken meat. Brazil was also the second largest producer of cattle; the world’s third largest milk producer; the world’s fourth largest producer of pork; and the seventh largest egg producer in the world.

In the mining sector, Brazil stands out in the extraction of the following products: iron ore (here it is the second world exporter), copper, gold, bauxite (the world’s 5 largest producer), manganese (one of the 5 largest producers in the world), tin (one of the world’s largest producers), niobium (concentrated 98% number of Earth-known reserves) and nickel. In terms of gemstones, Brazil is the world’s largest producer of amethyst, topaz, agate, and the main tourmaline, emerald, aquamarine, garnet and opal.

In the secondary sector (industry), Brazil is the industrial leader in Latin America. In 2019, the secondary sector, which includes the plastics, food, beverage, metallurgy and textile industries, represented 11% of Brazil’s economic activity.

The World Bank lists the main producing countries each year, by total production value. According to the 2019 list, Brazil has the 13th most valuable industry in the world ($173.6 billion). It is second only to the USA (2nd place) and Mexico (12th place) in the Americas. In the food industry, in 2019 Brazil was the world’s second largest exporter of processed food. In 2016, the country was the world’s 2nd largest pulp producer and 8th paper producer. In the shoe industry, Brazil ranked 4th among world manufacturers in 2019. In 2019, the country was the 8th vehicle producer and 9th steel producer in the world. In 2018, the Brazilian chemical industry was 8th in the world. In the textile industry, although Brazil was among the world’s top 5 producers in 2013, it is little integrated into world trade. In the aviation industry, there is Embraer in Brazil. It is the third largest aircraft manufacturer in the world after Boeing and Airbus.

The representative power of the tertiary sector (trade and services) was 75.8% of the country’s GDP in 2018. The services sector was responsible for 60% of GDP and trade was responsible for 13%. It covers a wide range of activities such as commerce, accommodation and meals, transportation, communications, financial services, real estate activities and services to companies, public administration (urban cleaning, sewerage, etc.) and other services such as education, social and health services. research and development, sports activities, etc., as it consists of activities complementary to other sectors.

Micro enterprises and small businesses represent 30% of the country’s GDP. In the commercial sector, for example, they represent 53% of GDP in the activities of the sector.

In 2017, the number of people employed in business activities in Brazil was 10.2 million (74.3% in retail trade, 17.0% in wholesale trade and 8.7% in trade in vehicles, parts and motorcycles). The number of commercial enterprises was 1.5 million and the number of stores was 1.7 million. Business activity in the country generated R $ 3.4 trillion in net operating income (gross revenue minus deductions such as cancellations, discounts and taxes) and R $ 583.7 billion in gross value added. The trade margin (defined as the difference between net revenue from resale and cost of goods sold) reached R$765.1 billion in 2017. Retail trade accounted for 56.4% of this total, wholesale trade was 36%, and vehicle, spare parts and motorcycle trade was 7.6%. In 2017 net operating income, retail trade was 45.5%, wholesale 44.6% and automotive sector 9.9%. Among the commercial activity groups, Hypermarkets and Supermarkets 12.5%; wholesale trade of fuel and lubricants 11.3%; retail and wholesale of food products, beverages and tobacco trade 4.8% and 8.4%, respectively; motor vehicle trade, 6.1%; Wholesale trade of machinery, devices and equipment, including information and communication technologies, was 3.7%.

Tourism revenue in the country in 2019 amounted to R$238.6 billion. The Southeast represented R$147 billion, 61.6% of the tourism industry’s revenue, of which R$96.7 billion was located in São Paulo alone. Rio de Janeiro, second in sales, achieved R $ 25.5 billion. Minas Gerais delivered sales of R$19.2 billion. The South participated with a share of 15.9% (R$37.9 billion) and the Northeast with a share of 12.6% (R$30 billion). The Mid-West (R$6.9%, R$16.5 billion) and the North (R$3.0%, R$7.3 billion) complete the picture. Restaurant and related segments (53.3%), passenger transport (26%) and accommodation and related (11%) were responsible for 90% of tourism sales with a value of approximately R$216 billion. There are 2.9 million workers in the industry today, of which 67% work in the accommodation and catering industry.

Brazil was the world’s 27th largest exporter in 2019, with 1.2% of the global total.

In 2019, Brazil exported close to 225 billion USD and imported 177 billion USD. The country’s top ten export products are soy, oil, iron ore, cellulose, corn, beef, chicken, soy bran, sugar and coffee. In general, the country exported 5.8 billion USD annually in the products produced. The country also exports cotton, tobacco, juice, shoes, airplanes, helicopters, cars, vehicle parts, gold, alcohol, semi-finished iron.

Energy

The Brazilian government has launched an ambitious program to reduce reliance on imported oil. Imports previously accounted for more than 70% of the country’s oil needs, but Brazil became self-sufficient from oil in 2006-2007. Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in 2019 with 2.8 million bbl/d. Production manages to meet the demand of the country. At the beginning of 2020, the country in oil and gas production exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day for the first time. In January this year, 3.168 million barrels of oil and 138,753 million cubic meters of natural gas were extracted per day.

Brazil is one of the world’s major producers of hydroelectric power. In 2019, Brazil had 217 hydroelectric power plants with an installed capacity of 98,581 MW, 60.16% of the country’s energy production. In total electricity generation, Brazil reached 170,000 megawatts of installed capacity in 2019, with more than 75% from renewable sources (majority, hydroelectric).

In 2013, the Southeast Region used about 50% of the load of the National Integrated System (SIN), the country’s main energy consuming region. The region’s installed electricity generation capacity was about 42,500 MW, representing about one-third of Brazil’s generation capacity. Hydroelectric generation represented 58% of the region’s installed capacity, while the remaining 42% mainly corresponded to thermoelectric generation. São Paulo accounted for 40% of this capacity; Minas Gerais about 25%; Rio de Janeiro 13.3%; and Espírito Santo formed the rest. The Southern District has been the owner of the Itaipu Dam, the world’s largest hydroelectric power plant for several years until the opening of the Three Gorges Dam in China. It remains the second largest hydropower enterprise in the world. Brazil co-owns Paraguay and Itaipu Factory: The dam is located on the Paraná River, on the border between the countries. It has an installed generation capacity of 14 GW for 20 generation units of 700 MW each. The Northern Territory has large hydroelectric power stations such as the Belo Monte Dam and the Tucuruí Dam, which produce most of the national energy. Brazil’s hydroelectric potential has not yet been fully utilized, so the country still has the capacity to build several renewable power plants on its territory.

As of September 2020, the total installed capacity of wind power was 16.3 GW, with an average capacity factor of 58%, according to ONS. While the world average wind generation capacity factors are 24.7%, in Northern Brazil, especially in the State of Bahia, where some wind farms set records with average capacity factors of over 60%; The average capacity factor in the Northeast Region is 45% on the coast and 49% in the interior. In 2019, wind power represented 9% of the energy produced in the country. In 2019, the country was estimated to have around 522 GW (that’s onshore only) wind power generation potential, with enough energy to meet three times the country’s current demand.

Nuclear power accounts for about 4% of Brazil’s electricity. The nuclear power generation monopoly is owned by Eletronuclear (Eletrobrás Eletronuclear S/A), a wholly owned subsidiary of Eletrobrás. Nuclear power is produced by two reactors at Angra dos Reis. Angra dos Reis in Praia de Itaorna is located at the Central Nuclear Almirante Álvaro Alberto (CNAAA) in Rio de Janeiro. It consists of two pressurized water reactors, Angra I with a capacity of 657 MW connected to the electricity grid in 1982 and Angra II with a capacity of 1,350 MW connected in 2000. A third reactor, Angra III, is planned to be completed at the plant, which is projected to produce 1,350 MW.

As of September 2020, according to ONS, the total installed power of photovoltaic solar energy is 6.9 GW, with an average capacity factor of 23%. Some of the most teleported Brazilian states are MG (Minas Gerais), BA (Bahia), and GO (Goiás), which do indeed have world teleportation level records. In 2019, solar energy represented 1.27% of the energy produced in the country.

Transportation

Transportation in Brazil is basically done in highway mode, which is the most developed in the region. There is also an important infrastructure for ports and airports. The rail and river sector, despite its potential, is often treated in a secondary way.

There are more than 1.7 million kilometers of roads in Brazil, of which 215,000 km are asphalt and about 14,000 km are recurring roads. The two most important highways in the country are BR-101 and BR-116.

Due to the Andes, the Amazon River and the Amazon Forest, there have always been difficulties in implementing intercontinental or biooxygenated roads. The only road that practically existed was the road connecting Brazil to Buenos Aires in Argentina and later to Santiago in Chile. In recent years, however, new routes have begun to emerge, such as the Brazil-Peru route (Inter-Ocean Highway) and a new highway between Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina and northern Chile, through the joint effort of countries. (Biological Corridor).

There are more than 2,000 airports in Brazil. The country has the second largest number of airports in the world, after the United States. Located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, São Paulo International Airport is the country’s largest and busiest airport – the airport connects São Paulo with almost all major cities in the world. In Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Florianópolis, Cuiabá, Salvador, Recife, Fortaleza, Belém and Manaus, among others. The 10 busiest airports in South America in 2017: São Paulo-Guarulhos (Brazil), Bogotá (Colombia), São Paulo-Congonhas (Brazil), Santiago (Chile), Lima (Peru), Brasília (Brazil), Rio January . (Brazil), Buenos Aires-Aeroparque (Argentina), Buenos Aires-Ezeiza (Argentina) and Minas Gerais (Brazil).

About the port The port of Santos in Brazil, South America, the port of Rio de Janeiro, the port of Paranaguá, the port of Itajaí, the Port of Rio Grande and the Port of Suape. The 15 most active ports in South America are: Port of Santos (Brazil), Port of Bahía de Cartagena (Colombia), Callao (Peru), Guayaquil (Ecuador), Buenos Aires (Argentina), San Antonio (Chile), Buenaventura (Colombia) , Itajaí (Brazil), Valparaíso (Chile), Montevideo (Uruguay), Paranaguá (Brazil), Rio Grande (Brazil), São Francisco do Sul (Brazil), Manaus (Brazil) and Coronel (Chile).

The Brazilian rail network is approximately 30,000 kilometers long. It is mainly used to transport minerals.

Two main Brazilian waterways stand out: the Tietê-Paraná waterway (2,400 km long, 1,600 on the Paraná River and 800 km on the Tietê River, drying up agricultural production in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás and Rondônia, Tocantins and Minas Gerais The Solimões-Amazonas waterway (has two sections: Solimões, about 1600 km from Tabatinga to Manaus, and 1650 km from Manaus to Belém. Almost all passenger transport from the Amazon plain, to the regional centers of Belém and Manaus. In addition to all outgoing cargo transport, almost all cargo transport is carried out by this waterway. In Brazil, this transport is still underutilized: economically the most important sections of waterways are located in the Southeast and South of the country. Its full use is also due to the construction of locks, large dredging and specifically depends on ports that allow intermodal integration.

Climate

Brazil has a tropical climate. Summers are hot in the east and north east regions, and winters can reach up to 20 degrees on the coast. It is colder in the mountainous terrain of Brazil. The south has a humid and subtropical climate.

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Minimum Temperature (°C)232322211918171818192022
Maximum temperature (°C)292928272524242424252628
Humidity (%)767881807978777578777777
Rainy days131112102077711131314

Culture

Brazilian culture derives from Portuguese culture due to its strong ties with the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese introduced the Portuguese to the Brazilians, Roman Catholicism, the Manueline architectural style. But Brazilian culture; It has also been heavily influenced by the cultures and traditions of African, Native American and European countries other than Portugal.

Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by Italian, German, and other European immigrants, as well as Japanese, Jewish, and Arab immigrants, who reached large populations in the southern and southeastern parts of Brazil in the 19th and 20th century. Native Indians the language and cuisine of Brazil; Africans, on the other hand, influenced their language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.

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