Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra, is a landlocked sovereign microstate on the Pyrenees Mountains on the Iberian Peninsula. It is surrounded by France in the north and Spain in the south. Thought to have been founded by Charlemagne, Andorra was ruled by the earls of Urgell until it was handed over to the Diocese of Urgell in 988. The present principality was established by a treaty made in 1278. Principality; It is a diarchy in Catalonia, led by two co-princes, the bishop of Urgell and the president of France.
With an area of 468 km², Andorra is the sixth smallest country in Europe and has a population of approximately 77,000. The Andorran people are an Italic ethnic group of Catalan ancestry. Andorra is the 16th smallest country by area and 11th by population. Its capital, Andorra la Vella, is the highest altitude capital in Europe, with an elevation of 1,023 meters above sea level. The official language is Catalan; Spanish, Portuguese and French are also widely spoken.
Tourism has developed in Andorra, with about 10.2 million tourists visiting the country annually. Andorra is not a member of the European Union, but the euro is used as its official currency. It has been a member of the United Nations since 1993. Andorra had the longest life expectancy at 81 years in 2013, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study.
It is accepted that the independence of Andorra was ensured by Charlemagne, who recaptured the region from the Muslims in 803, and his son Louis I (Sofu), who donated part of his empire to the bishop of Urgel in Spain in 819.
In 1278, Andorra was brought under the joint rule of two princes, one in Spain and the other in France, and the borders of the country became clear. The borders of the country have not changed since the mentioned year. The established feudal order was temporarily abolished during the French Revolution, but was re-established by Napoleon in 1806. Andorra has since been jointly administered by the bishop of Urgel and the French president; a symbolic tax is paid to both of them each year.
The Andorra economy, which hosts an estimated 10.2 million tourists a year, consists of tourism revenues, about 80% of its gross domestic product. In the agricultural area, only 2% of the land area is arable, and tobacco farming is dominant in the country. The manufacturing industry of the country where domestic sheep are raised in livestock activities consists of cigarette, cigar and furniture production.
Although it is not a member of the European Union, the country that carries out direct export activities with European Union countries does not have its own currency, and the currencies of Spain and France, the European Union countries surrounding the country, are widely used. Since January 1, 2002, the official currency of the European Union, the euro, has also been widely used in the country. Andorra has one of the lowest unemployment rates in the world, according to statistics from June 2009, showing 100% employment.